Jun 23, 2014 the idea of co consuls meant no one individual could abuse the executive power. A roman consul was the highest elected political office of the roman republic each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a oneyear term. The related adjective is consular, from the latin consularis. A guide to the political offices of the roman republic. The romans also practiced slavery, and women had limited authority in a threeparagraph response, explain how a historian might use each of the organizing principles of region, period, and theme to construct a historical narrative of the roman empire. When sulla came to power, he changed the tribune of the plebs. If during that year a consul resigned from office or died, a suffect replacement consul was elected in his place. The consuls term was only one year long and the same person couldnt be elected until another 10 years. Who were the roman consuls and how did they rule rome. Romans had the ability to make friends out of their defeated enemies. The highest positions in the government were held by two consuls, or leaders, who ruled the roman republic. The senate was the most powerful branch of the roman republic, and senators held the position for life.
The two most important were the tribunes of the plebs and the military tribunes. What were some of the biggest limitations for the consuls of. Who were the consuls in the roman republic answers. Consul, latin consul, plural consules, in ancient rome, either of the two highest of the ordinary magistracies in the ancient roman republic. Each consul was given veto power over his colleague and the officials would alternate each month. The assembly of tribes comitia tributa, composed of all citizens, approved or rejected laws and decided issues of war and peace. Initially, while the position of consul was open only to patricians. It expanded through conquest and colonization and became a major power of the ancient world.
In order to keep the consul from becoming a king or dictator. Why did the roman republic have 2 consules answers. The roman republic hortonville area school district. After the expulsion of the kings and the establishment of the republic, all the powers that had belonged to the kings were transferred to two offices. These consuls had the authority to call assemblies of the people. The roman republic was a civilization ahead of its time and very advanced.
According to the lex villia annalis passed in 180 bc which established minimum age requirements for all magistrate positions within the cursus honorum, consuls had to be 42 years of age. As a check on the authority of the consuls, any decisions made had to unanimous since both had the power of veto. Absolute authority was expressed in the consuls imperium q. The consuls were the chairmen of the senate, which served as a board of advisers. When the roman republic was founded in 509 bc, the powers that had been held by the king were transferred to the roman consuls, of which two were to be elected each year. Feb 02, 2018 now, some prominent roman consuls, who during their time in this office made large reforms or dealt with major events. This powerful tool, which only consuls and tribunes had access to, could keep laws that would threaten the republic from being passed.
Consul s latin plural consules was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the roman republic, and subsequently also an important title under the roman empire. It was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. Consuls at the top of the roman republic was the consul. A consul held the highest elected political office of the roman republic 509 to 27 bc, and ancient romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired. As other ancient societies dated historical events according to the reigns of their kings, it. Admittedly, only one of his consulships came before his war with pompey. Who were the roman consuls of the roman republic answers. The roman republic had three different parts to its government.
A senate composed of patricians elected these consuls. Ieder jaar werden twee vooraanstaande senatoren door het romeinse volk gekozen in deze. Later, however, at least one consul had to come from the plebeian class, the. Now, other institutions that developed during the time of the roman kingdom were an institution that developed at the time of the roman kingdom was the senate, was the roman senate.
They were elected for a oneyear term and each had veto power over the other. As a starting point, they were expected to follow the laws of the city, and the decrees of the senate. A consul held the highest elected political office of the roman republic. The executive branch was made up of two consuls, elected yearly. Nov 23, 2018 they had the authority to convene the roman senate the main chamber of government and served as the republics supreme diplomats, often meeting with foreign ambassadors and emissaries. But they held significant power in their own right, and the reins on the consuls tended to vary dependent on the situation.
Apr 26, 2020 consuls not only could act as judges but also had the power to chose and install a dictator for a sixmonth term if necessary. About 853, alfred the great, then a child aged four or five, was made a roman consul by the pope. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month when. Consul, in ancient rome, either of the two highest of the ordinary magistracies in the ancient roman republic. From the establishment of th e republi c to the time of. Normally there were two consuls who were appointed each year by the comitia centuriata. Roman magistrate, comparable with a prime minister or a president. Bria 8 4 b democracy and dictatorship in ancient rome. In the roman republic the consuls were the two top officials. The roman republic was an era of classical roman civilization that dated back to 509 bc, until 27 bc, with the establishment of the roman empire. They had the authority to convene the roman senate the main chamber of government and served as the republic s supreme diplomats, often meeting with foreign ambassadors and emissaries. Is it true that consuls in the ancient roman republic. The title was used in other european city states through antiquity and the middle ages, then revived in modern states, notably in the first french republic.
As a result, the consuls in the early years of the republic were always patricians. Each year, the citizens of rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a oneyear term. This, of course, had a significant and permanent effect on the republic. At this time, lowerclass citizens, or plebeians, had virtually no say in the government. Roman republic, the ancient state centered on the city of rome that began in 509 bce, when the romans replaced their monarchy with elected magistrates, and lasted until 27 bce, when the roman empire was established. Under the empire, the office was prestigious but unimportant. Under normal circumstances, a roman could only serve in such a capacity only once every ten years. Below youll find a list of the roman consuls including dictators, suffect consuls and military tribunes with consular power from the start of the republic to a. After a roman magistrate served his term in office, it usually was followed with automatic appointment to the senate. One had to be at least 43 years old to become consul. In order to keep the consul from becoming a king or dictator, there were always two consuls elected and they only served for one year. It was during this period that romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to. The consul was believed by the romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the republic in 509 bc, but the. During wartime, consuls were also expected to lead romes military in the field.
Absolute authority was expressed in the consul s imperium q. Tribunus was the title of various elected officials in ancient rome. Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the roman republic, and subsequently also an. Some of the ideas of the roman republic are still used today. Roman republic simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Oct 23, 2019 the assembly of centuries comitia centuriata, which was composed of all members of the army, elected consuls annually.
Magistrates of the republic were elected by the people of rome, and were each vested with a degree of power called major powers maior potestas. The consul was an elected roman magistrate, with regal power during the republican. Roman society under the republic was a cultural mix of latin, etruscan, and greek elements, which is especially visible in the roman pantheon. The government in the early years of the roman republic had 3 branchesthe consuls, the senate, and the assembly. Its political organisation was strongly influenced by the greek city states of magna graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate.
These two consuls had almost kingly powers, and each could veto, or disapprove of the others decision. Although much of this history had been lost, the roman historian livy 59 bce 17 ce was still able to write a remarkable history of rome 142 volumes recounting the years of the monarchy through the fall of the republic. There were normally two consuls elected for each year. Polybius noted that it was the consuls the highestranking of the regular magistrates who led the armies and the civil government in rome, and it was the roman assemblies which had the ultimate authority over elections, legislation, and criminal trials. For most of roman history, a college of ten tribunes of the plebs acted as a check on the authority of the senate and the annual magistrates, holding the power of ius intercessionis to intervene on behalf of the plebeians, and veto. How was the roman republic different from the roman empire. Because of the changing nature of the republic, it was imperative that the consuls concentrate on political concerns and wait until after their consulships to pursue military glory, if so desired. Roman republics 3 branches of government thoughtco. This passing does not diminish the role of the consul during the republic. A consul, elected through the assembly, had the power of a king, power albeit restricted by his oneyear term and the authority of the other consul. Consuls were elected by the citizen body and always governed in pairs, with each consul holding veto power over the others decisions. They had the ultimate responsibility for the running of the government for their one year term of office although they had lesser. The roman republic had 2 consuls that served a term of 1 year, but couldnt be reelected.
Consuls of the roman republic below is a list of the consuls of the roman republic from its foundation until the battle of actium in 31 b. In the 360s, however, the office was opened for plebeians in 366, according to an inaccurate chronology discussed here. Historical writing in rome did not begin until the late 3rd century bce, when rome had already completed its conquest of italy, established itself as a major power of the ancient world, and become involved in a gigantic. In the early republic, they held judicial duties until these responsibilities were moved to the praetors and later to permanent courts. The end of the republic is still a matter of dispute. The roman people elected consuls, who ruled for a short time. The roman consuls were elected officials of the roman republic who served a term of 1 year at a time and inherited imperium from the kings, meaning that they had the power to command the roman. A suffect consul replaced a man who died in office or resigned. Eventually, conquered people accepted wise and capable roman rule and the peace that it brought. Which branch of government in the roman republic was led by. Why was a dictator chosen to head the government in times of emergency.
All 300 members of the roman republics senate were patricians like the consuls. Sometimes dictators were at the head of the roman republic. They also commanded the roman army both had two legions and exercised the highest juridical power in the roman empire. Also, the consuls could veto each other if they didnt agree on something. Why was the roman consuls awarded the power of the veto. Roman consul simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. And under the king, the king had most of the power, but once the roman republic gets established, its actually the senate where most of the power resides. Tribunes, consuls and senators were government officials in ancient rome. During the period of the roman republic, there were two heads of state called consuls. The consul was believed by the romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the republic in 509 bc, but the succession. Roman social and political structures video khan academy. Originally, the two consuls had to belong to the patriciate, the roman aristocracy. Lacuscurtius the roman consul smiths dictionary, 1875.
The early roman republic 509264 bce and the preceding regal period 753509 bce are the most poorly documented periods of roman history. The senate of the roman republic was a political institution in the ancient roman republic. Both men and women were citizens in the roman republic, but only men could vote. From the establishment of the republic to the time of augustus, the consuls were the chief magistrates of the roman state, and normally there were two of them, so that the executive power of the state was not vested in a single individual, as it had been under the kings. However, since the senate controlled money, administration, and the details of foreign.
Although not a true democracy by the modern definition, the roman republic appeared somewhat representative. Much of his history, however, especially the early years, was based purely on myth and oral accounts. One consul could always overrule the others decision. The romans established a form of government a republic that was copied by countries for. Although these political offices continued throughout the history of the roman empire, they wielded their greatest power. But not all members of roman society had the same access to peace and prosperity. Gaius julius caesar, the most famous roman of the republic had 5 stints as consul. Rome was able to make the successful transition from a king to a. The consulship which was established as a republican magistracy at rome immediately after the abolition of royalty, showed its republican. The roman republic had a detailed written constitution that protected the rights.767 218 310 163 114 1167 990 610 1529 1282 956 307 478 789 51 914 1485 67 1348 1238 1369 1364 1436 1108 1473 412 121 1036 626 83 1305 496 1478 1044 950 382 227 376